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Reading labels and differentiation of the product categories should be one of the
basic skills of conscious consumer.




JUICE - the product obtained from one or more species of healthy, ripe, fresh or chilled fruits and vegetables. It has color, taste and smell typical for the juice of fruits and vegetables which it was made of. Fruit or vegetable pulp and cells, that were previously separated, can be added to the juice. It is forbidden to add dyes, sweeteners, preservatives and flavorings other than those obtained from fruits and vegetables, of which the juice is produced. Juices can be enriched with vitamins and minerals. In December 2011, the European Parliament decided to ban the addition of sugar to fruit juices, which sanctioned the common practice. According to the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development dated 8 February 2013 on the detailed requirements for commercial quality fruit juices and nectars from 28 October 2013 it is not allowed to add any sugar to all juices. Juices can be divided according to different criteria, taking into account: the type of raw material (fruit, vegetable, fruit and vegetables), a kind of semi-finished product (directly squeezed, juice reconstituted from concentrate), thermal treatment (unpasteurized - the so-called one day juices, pasteurized), appearance and consistency (clear, naturally cloudy, mashy).


NECTAR - contains from 25 to 100% juice / puree of fruit or vegetable, depending on the type of fruit or vegetables, nectar is obtained by addition of water and sugar and / or honey and sometimes citric acid to the juice / puree of fruit or vegetable. For example, apple, orange and grapefruit nectars contain min. 50 % of fruit juice, cherry and black currant nectars min. 25%. It is not allowed to add to nectars dyes, preservatives and flavorings other than those derived from fruits and vegetables, from which the nectar is produced. The color, taste and texture therefore depend on fruits or vegetables used in the production. That makes nectars a valuable and fully natural product. Nectars are often produced of sour and tart fruits, of which 100 % juice would be unpalatable, fruits such as for example cherry, black currant and chokeberry, also nectars are often made of fruits of which the juice would be too thick, for example banana. If to 100% juice there will be added for example. honey, which is not allowed in juice, but is allowed in nectar, this product will also be called nectar. For light types of nectars the sweeteners  may be added.


FRUIT AND VEGETABLE DRINKS - a group of beverages is very wide. It is best to select these vegetable and fruit drinks, which by definition must contain min. 20 % of juice or mash of fruit or vegetable. Such drinks are rich in nutrients from fruits or vegetables. Fruit and vegetable drinks can be pasteurized or chemically preserved. The beverage is allowed to use colorants, flavorings other than natural, and also sweeteners, thickeners and other additives permitted to impart flavor, aroma, but also can be added to enrich the beverage. If we add spices or their extracts to a 100 % fruit juice, then from the law point of view the product must be called beverage. Some fruits, for example lemon, lime, are not used for juices or nectars as they would be too sour.


CONCENTRATED FRUIT OR VEGETABLE JUICE (fruit or vegetable juice concentrate) - concentrated fruit or vegetable juice is a product obtained from one or more species of fruits or vegetables by removing part of the water contained therein by physical means, usually by evaporating the water (although the method of freezing is also used). Concentrated juice is a concentrated form of the finished juice and it has all the qualities such as flavor, colour and nutrients like vitamins, fiber and any other valuable for our body. Completing it with water in the correct proportion brings the concentrate back to the original value and to a state of juice ready for consumption. Modern juice industry (production of ready juices) is based mainly on the process of dissolving the concentrates and packing of juices in aseptic packaging units.


FRUIT SYRUPS are a separate category and can not be classified as any of the above products. Content of fruit juice in syrups is not specified by law, it is allowed to use multiple substances with a technological function, substances such as thickeners, dyes, fruit syrups therefore can not be called „concentrated juices”.


1)  In accordance with the EU directive from April 2012 (Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2012/12 / EC of 19 April 2012 amending Council directive 2001/112 / EC relating to fruit juices and certain similar products intended for human consumption) manufacturers can not add any sugar (white sugar, fruit sugar, sugar syrup, glucose-fructose syrup, corn syrups and others) to any fruit juices. However, sugar can be added to vegetable juices and vegetable and fruit nectars and drinks. According to the interpretation, sugar also cannot be added to 100% vegetable juices and vegetable and fruit juices.

2) Juice directive dated 27 April 2012 has been implemented in Poland by the appropriate regulations. According to the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development from 8 February 2013 amending the regulation on specific requirements for the commercial quality of juices and nectars (OJ 2013 pos. 327), since October 28, 2013 all fruit juices on the market may not contain any added sugars. The only sugars in fruit juices are those naturally occurring in fruits from which the juices were produced. Therefore, fruit juices in any case can not be called sweetened products. What's more, according to the guidelines of the European Commission, all 100% juices were not allowed to contain added sugar even before October 28, 2013, due to the definition of 100 % juice (100 % juice can not be added any additives, including sugar).

3) The content of sugars in 100g of juice made of concentrated juice and NFC juice (Not From Concentrate), commonly called „direct”, as well as fruit from which the juice has been produced is very similar. According to legal regulations it is forbidden to add sugar to fruit juices. It is also forbidden remove sugars naturally occurring in fruits. This is one of the conditions to maintain full naturalness and authenticity of the juices. The average calorific value of fruit and fruit juice is 40 - 50 kcal / 100 g of product, while the calorific value of wheat bread without additives is 270 kcal / 100 g. Calorific value of the juice reconstituted from concentrate and fruit juice (the so-called direct juice) is practically the same.

4) The vast majority of fruits and vegetables and juices made of them, having regarded to the content of proteins, fat and carbohydrates other than sugars, provide less than 50 kcal in 100g and has a medium glycemic index.

5) Fruit and vegetable juices provide substantial amounts of minerals - and especially potassium, which is very important in the context of excessive sodium intake and sodium-potassium balance. In addition, the juices are a source of antioxidant substances important in maintaining the body welfare and counteracting free radicals, while cloudy juices and purées are also a valuable source of soluble fiber (pectins).

6) One and a half cup of orange or grapefruit juice (300 ml) roughly covers adult daily requirement for vitamin C (80 mg).

7) On average, one glass of red beet juice (200 ml) covers adult daily requirement for folic acid (200 micrograms).

8) Carrot juices are rich in beta-carotene (provitamin A) which is essential for normal growth and the process of seeing. On average, one glass meets the adult needs of vitamin A (as beta- carotene 800 mg)[1].

9) It is forbidden to add dyes and preservatives  to all the juices and nectars. It is also prohibited  to add flavorings other than those derived from fruits and vegetables, of which the juice or nectar was made.

10) It is forbidden to add any sweeteners to any type of juice. Sweeteners are allowed to light type nectars, and it has to be declared on the packaging.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO) we should consume min. 400 grams of fruits and vegetables a day. A glass of juice can be one of the recommended by experts five daily nutritional servings of vegetables and fruits. In this issue the reliable position is presented by the Ministries of Health of different countries or appriopriate Government Agencies dealing with public health and food safety.

The most important arguments of the campaign:

a) Consuming of fruit or vegetable juice as the equivalent of one of the five portions of fruits or vegetables recommended for daily consumption is supported in the position expressed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the „Measuring intake of fruit or vegetables" document, in the definition of the term "fruit" (paragraph 8.1) the 100 % fruit juice is indicated as an absolutely sterling equivalent of the fruit („Fruits should include: fruits that are fresh, canned, frozen and dried unless they are classified as vegetables regardless their high energy content, such as avocados, olives, and nuts. Only fruit juices that are 100 % pure should be considered as fruit”).

b)In accordance with the recommendations of the Institute of Food and Nutrition juices may be one of the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables. According to the "Rules of the proper nutrition of children and young people and tips for a healthy lifestyle[2]”edited by Miroslaw Jarosz, director of the Institute of Food and Nutrition, a serving is: a medium-sized fruit or vegetable (apple, carrot) or several smaller pieces (strawberries, cherries), 1 cup of salad or 1 cup of juice. In addition, the expertise of the Institute of Food and Nutrition – "Juices' position in a model of human nutrition”[3], under the guidance of prof. dr hab. n. med., Miroslaw Jarosz of 2014  confirms that "One portion of fruit or vegetables can be replaced by a portion of vegetable or fruit or fruit and vegetable juice (one portion corresponds to one glass of juice)”. In addition, the Institute of Food and Nutrition stresses that the diet should be sterling and balanced, and varied as well.

c) British institution of the National Health Service (NHS) recommends a glass of juice (150 ml) as one of the 5 servings of fruits and vegetables („A glass (150 ml) of fruit juice counts as one of your recommended five daily portions of fruit and vegetables. Smoothies that are 100% fruit or vegetable can count as up to two portions towards your 5 A DAY when they contain all of the edible pulped fruit or vegetable[4]). Purée juices as smoothies, which are very popular and liked by consumers, are widely available in Poland.


1) The average Polish drinks approx. 11.7 litres of juice per year (18 litres of juices and nectars), which gives an average of approx. 32 ml of juice per day per person (50 ml juices and nectars). In contrast, Norwegians and Finns drink about 200 ml of juice per person per day, which gives 1 cup of juice. In most EU countries the juice consumption is much higher than in Poland[5]. A small amount of juice (which is the most valuable fruit and vegetable product for drinking) consumed in Poland is caused primarily by a lack of consumer awareness.

2) The average calorific value of fruit and fruit juice is 40 - 50 kcal / 100 g, while the calorific value of wheat bread with no additives is 270 kcal / 100 g. The average caloric value of vegetables and 100 % vegetable juices is 20-30 kcal / 100 g of product. Calorific value of the juice reconstituted from concentrate and direct juice (so called NFC) is comparable. Fruits, vegetables and juices derived from them are among the least -calorie, natural products consumed.


[1] Points 6-8 developed basing on: - „Tabela składu i wartości odżywczych” H. Kunachowicz, I. Nadolna, B. Przygoda i K. Iwanow, Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warsaw 2005,
- Regulation of the European Parliament and Council (EU) No 1169/2011 of 25 October 2011 on the provision of information to consumers about food - www.nutritiondata.self.com

[2] Traczyk I., „Warzywa i owoce w codziennym jadłospisie”, „[w:] Zasady prawidłowego żywienia dzieci i młodzieży oraz wskazówki dotyczące zdrowego stylu życia, pod redakcją Mirosława Jarosza”, the Institute of Food and Nutrition, Warsaw 2008, p 79.

[3] Jarosz M., „Miejsce soków w modelu, żywienia człowieka”, the Institute of Food and Nutrition, Warsaw 2014, p.3

[4] http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/5ADAY/Pages/FAQs.aspx

[5] Market Report AIJN 2014

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